Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Crucible By Arthur Miller Essay - 2387 Words

In the literary piece, â€Å"The Crucible†, we are able to analyze the play with multiple theories or lenses, The play, which was written in the 1956 by Arthur Miller, is a play full of lust, passion, and lies. It all started when a small village which was once all about religion and simplicity and became a one stop ride to hell and eternal hanging. Tituba, Abigail, and the others were originally caught dancing and evoking the devil himself by Reverend Parris. Hysteria was what Parris originally reported and that was exactly what it was. Many innocent young ladies were humiliated and accused of practicing witchcraft. This was the original spark to the conflict as a whole. Those girls were living an extremely trite lifestyle that they no longer found interest in. The girls brought up the whole hysteria controversy amongst themselves unaware of the consequences and how far and dangerous it could get.The affair between Abigail and John Proctor is what sets the main plot into acti on. These two including Elizabeth are the most important characters in the play. There are three lenses or perspectives that the play can be analyzed by: Psychoanalytical, Archetypal, and Feminist perspectives. The Psychoanalytical perspective or theory is based off Sigmund Freud, who was known as the â€Å"Father of modern psychology†. Freud said there are three components to the subconscious: the ID which is one s basic desires, the Superego which is the opposite of ID to find guilt and all behavior related toShow MoreRelatedThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1269 Words   |  6 PagesAt first glance, the playwright Arthur Miller in The Crucible highlights the historical significance of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692, but in fact it is an allegorical expression of his perception of McCarthyism. If the reader has some background information on Arthur Miller’s victimization as a communist, it is evident that the play is a didactic vessel illustrating the flaws of the court system in the 1950’s. The communist allegations were launched at government employees, entertainers and writersRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1681 Words   |  7 Pagesof their way to the last dying breath to make sure they leave with a good or bad reputation. In one of the recent literature study in class â€Å"The Crucible† by Arthur Miller, Miller uses characterization to illustrate reputation throughout the play. â€Å"The Crucible† takes place in Salem, Massachusetts. It is based upon the Salem witch trails. In â€Å"The Crucible†, we journey through the life of three characters who reputations plays a major role in the play. The three characters are John Proctor, AbigailRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1333 Words   |  6 PagesAs the various characters in The Crucible by Arthur Miller interact, the dominant theme of the consequences of women’s nonconformity begins to slide out from behind the curtains of the play. Such a theme reveals the gripping fear that inundated the Puritans during the seventeenth century. This fear led to the famous witch-hunts that primarily terrorized women who deviated from the Puritan vision of absolute obedience and orthodoxy. Arthur Miller presents his interpretation of the suffering by subtlyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller998 Words   |  4 Pagesmotivated by jealousy and spite. The Crucible is a four-act dramatic play production that was first performed on January 22, 1953. Arthur Miller used dialogue within the characters to cover the multiple themes; conflicts and resolutions, plus the few directions for the different actions of the play. The Salem Witch Trials were intended to be performed as the play however, when read, it can be more carefully examined and broken down to analyze the techniques. Miller, the playwright, uses literaryRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1145 Words   |  5 PagesUnbalance Through The Centuries In Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible, the author reflects the persecution of communists in America in the 1950’s through a recount of the Salem witch trials. It is often presumed that Miller based his drama directly off of events that were particularly prevalent in the years surrounding the publication of The Crucible- which was released in the year 1953, towards the conclusion of the Korean War. Although there was not a literal witch hunt occurring during this timeRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1063 Words   |  5 PagesIn the English dictionary, there are three definitions of the word crucible. One is a metal container in which metals are mixed and melted. Another is a severe test. But the third definition, and the one that I think fits the best for this book, is a place or situation in which different elements interact to create something new. In my mind, this fits because all of the characters had their little grudges and dirty secrets. But when all th ose seemingly little things interact, they formed somethingRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1285 Words   |  6 Pages Rationale, Morality, Stereotypes, Pressure, Self-Censorship, Unanimity, and Mindguards. Groupthink has also taken place in our history a a country. The play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller is about a the real-life Salem Witch Trials that happened in 1692 - 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts. Some symptoms of Groupthink found in the Crucible are Rationale, Pressure, and Self-Censorship. The Groupthink symptom, Rationale, is described as when victims of Groupthink ignore warnings: they also collectivelyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller811 Words   |  4 Pages While The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is only a four act play, it still resembles the format of a five act play. The five-act structure evolved from a three-act structure, which was made famous by Roman Aelius Donatus. Donatus came up with three types of plays: Protasis, Epitasis, and Catastrophe. The five-act structure helped to expand the three act structure, mainly made famous by Shakespeare through his many tragedies. Even though The Crucible contains only four acts, it still has the commonRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1052 Words   |  5 PagesBuddy Al-Aydi Ms.Healy English 9 CP 14th October 2014 The Crucible Essay The Crucible was a novel written by Arthur Miller in the 1950’s. It was written in a format of the play, portraying an allegory of the Salem Witch-Hunts led by Senator Joseph McCarthy. The book is known to have a inexplicable plot. This plot is advanced by multiple characters in the book in order to ensure that the reader maintains interest with the material that is being read. The farmer, John Proctor, would be theRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller841 Words   |  4 PagesThe Crucible is a chaotic play, throughout this American classic Arthur Miller takes the reader through multiple events of terror and insanity. While creating a great on-stage play, Arthur Miller portrays his life through the events, the characters, and plot of The Crucible. Using vivid imagery and comprehensible symbolism, Miller manipulates the real personalities of the characters and events in 1600 Salem, Massachusetts to create a symbolic autobiography. Throughout this play, the reader experie nces

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Rhode Island v. Innis Supreme Court Case, Arguments, Impact

In Rhode Island v. Innis (1980), the Supreme Court created the functionally equivalent standard for determining when police officers are interrogating a suspect. The Court ruled that an interrogation is not limited to direct questioning, but instead covers any actions that can be reasonably understood as coercive. Fast Facts: Rhode Island v. Innis Case Argued: October 30, 1979Decision Issued:  May 12,1980Petitioner:  Rhode IslandRespondent:  Thomas J. InnisKey Questions: What constitutes an interrogation under Miranda v. Arizona? Did police officers violate Innis right to remain silent when they expressed concerns about the location of a weapon while transporting Innis to the police station?Majority Decision: Justices Burger, Stewart, White, Blackmun, Powell, RehnquistDissenting: Justices Brennan, Marshall, StevensRuling:  Under precedent set in Miranda v. Arizona, coercive conduct could be functionally equivalent to an interrogation. Facts of the Case Four days after he went missing, police recovered the body of John Mulvaney, a Providence, Rhode Island, taxicab driver. He appeared to have died from a shotgun blast. A few days after uncovering the body in a shallow grave in Coventry, Rhode Island, police received a report of a robbery in which the assailant had used a sawed-off shotgun to threaten a taxicab driver. The driver identified his assailant twice at the police station using photos. Police began to search for the suspect. A patrolman spotted Thomas J. Innis at 4:30 a.m. The patrolman placed Innis under arrest, advising him of his Miranda rights. Innis was unarmed. A sergeant and captain arrived on the scene and again advised Innis of his rights. This time, Innis requested an attorney and the captain made it clear that the patrolmen accompanying Innis to the police station were not to question him. During the ride, two of the officers began to discuss concerns about gun safety. There was a school for children with disabilities in the neighborhood. The officers suggested that if a child found the discarded shotgun, they might injure themselves trying to play with it. Innis interrupted the conversation and told the officers where he had hidden the gun. During the search for the weapon, the officers again advised Innis of his rights. Innis said he understood his rights, but wanted to make sure that the gun was out of reach of children in the area. Constitutional Issues The Fifth Amendment ensures that an individual has the right to remain silent until they can speak with an attorney. Did the conversation between officers seated in the front of the car violate Innis Fifth Amendment right to remain silent? Did the officers interrogate Innis during the drive to the police station, despite Innis request for an attorney? Arguments Unlike some cases stemming from the Miranda v. Arizona decision, neither attorney argued that Innis was not properly advised of his rights. Neither attorney argued whether Innis was or was not in custody during transport to the police station. Instead, the attorney representing Innis argued that officers had violated Innis right to remain silent when they questioned him after  he asked for an attorney. The conversation about gun danger was a tactic used to get Innis to cooperate, the attorney argued. That tactic should be included within the Courts definition of an interrogation, according to the attorney. The government claimed that the conversation between officers did not concern Innis. They never prompted a response from Innis and did not explicitly question him during the ride. Information about where the shotgun was located was freely offered by Innis, the attorney argued. Majority Opinion Justice Potter Stewart delivered the 6-3 decision in favor of Rhode Island. The majority expanded the meaning of the word interrogation as it applies to Miranda warnings. In Miranda v. Arizona, the Court was concerned about the interrogation environment, an atmosphere created by actions that could exist outside of a police station. The case noted that there were many police tactics, such as psychological ploys and coached witnesses, that could violate a suspects rights but were not based on verbal communication with the suspect.   Justice Stewart wrote: That is to say, the term interrogation under Miranda refers not only to express questioning, but also to any words or actions on the part of the police (other than those normally attendant to arrest and custody) that the police should know are reasonably likely to elicit an incriminating response from the suspect. The Court noted that, in Innis case, the conversation between patrolmen on the way to the police station was not functionally equivalent to an interrogation. The officers had no way of knowing their conversation would encourage a response from Innis, the Court found. Nothing in the record suggested that an appeal to the safety of children would coerce Innis into revealing the location of the weapon. Dissenting Opinion Justices John Marshall and William J. Brennan agreed with the way the majority defined the term interrogation but reached a different outcome in terms of Innis case. Justice Marshall argued that it would be difficult to find a more targeted appeal to someones conscience than the death of a helpless, handicapped little girl. The officers should have known that their conversation was going to have an emotional impact on the suspect, the justices argued. In a separate dissent, Justice John Paul Stevens argued for a different definition of interrogation. According to Justice Stevens, interrogation is any type of conduct that has the same purpose or effect as a direct statement. Impact The Supreme Court developed a standard for interrogation under Miranda that is still used today. The case added to jurisprudence expanding and clarifying key aspects of the landmark 1966 ruling. In Rhode Island v. Innis, the Court affirmed that Miranda v. Arizona was not written to solely safeguard suspects from direct questioning while waiting for an attorney, but other functionally equivalent acts of coercion as well. Sources Rhode Island v. Innis, 446 U.S. 291 (1980).Schutzman, Alan M. â€Å"Rhode Island v. Innis.† Hofstra Law Review, vol. 9, no. 2, 1981.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mobile Query and Processing in Mobile Database Environment Free Essays

string(78) " all data that is highly related and likely to be queried in the near future\." MOBILE QUERY AND PROCESSING IN MOBILE DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Agustinus Borgy Waluyo1 1 Bala Srinivasan1 David Taniar2 School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Monash University, Australia {Agustinus. Borgy. Waluyo, Bala. We will write a custom essay sample on Mobile Query and Processing in Mobile Database Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Srinivasan}@infotech. monash. edu. au. 2 School of Business Systems, Monash University, Australia David. Taniar@infotech. monash. edu. au Abstract Mobile database is a new context of database application in wireless environment. It introduces unique type of queries, and query-processing strategies that are different to traditional databases. We classify mobile database query into two categories, especially context-awareness query and adhoc query. Context-awareness query is further classified into location dependent, context dependent, and hybrid query. As for the query processing, we define three strategies namely mobile client, on air, and server strategy. Mobile client and on air strategy relates to caching strategy and broadcast strategy respectively. Finally, we include some challenges in mobile databases. 1. Introduction Recent advances in wireless technology have led to mobile computing, a new dimension in data communication and processing. Many predict a new emerging, gigantic market with millions of mobile users carrying small, battery-powered terminal equipped with wireless connection [1,2,10]. The mobile computing environment provides database applications with useful aspects of wireless technology, which is known as mobile databases. This advance technology has created a new age of nomadic database users. Basically, these users are simply accessing a database through a network. However, the network is now applied in wireless environment, and has several novel properties, which include user’s locations are constantly changing, the likelihood of losing connections is much greater than in a traditional network, and asymmetric communication environment in which the wireless bandwidth for uplink communication is smaller than downlink communication [11]. In general, mobile user communicates with a Mobile Base Station (MBS) to carry out any activities such as transaction and information retrieval. MBS has a wireless interface to establish communication with mobile client and it serves a large number of mobile users in a specific region called cell. In mobile environment architecture, each MBS is connected to a fixed network as illustrated in Figure 1(a). Mobile units or mobile clients in each cell can connect to the fixed network via wireless radio, wireless Local Area Network (LAN), wireless cellular, or satellite. Each of the wireless networks provides a different bandwidth capacity. However, the wireless bandwidth is too small as compared to the fixed network such as ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) can provide speed up to 155Mbps [7]. 55 Wireless Network Mobile Base Station Mobile Base Station Wireless Network High speed Wired Network Fixed Host Fixed Host Crossing Crossing Mobile Client Query Query Processing Strategy Data Repository Query Result 2 Mobile Base Station Mobile Base Station Query Taxonomy = Mobile Client = Wireless Network 1 (a) Mobile Environment Architecture (b) Query Application in Mobile Environment Figure 1. Mobile Environment Architecture and Query Processing Figure 1(b) depicts the query processing in mobile databases. Mobile client initiates a query, and retrieve the data from data repository. The data repository is available in the fixed network. The query is transmitted through wireless channel, and the result is obtained using certain query processing strategies. As can be seen in Figure 1b, a sign of number 1, and 2, which is attached in query taxonomy, and query processing strategy respectively, correspond to the main content of this paper. Driven by differences between wired and wireless environment results in differences of type of queries, query processing mechanisms as well as communication technology. It is the aim of this paper to provide comprehensive query taxonomy, and processing strategy in mobile databases. Figure 2 shows a detailed structure of this paper. Subsequent sections in this paper are organized as follows. Section 2 describes query taxonomy in mobile databases. Section 3 contains the query processing strategies, and section 4 discusses some challenges in mobile databases. Finally, section 5 concludes the paper. In this paper, the term mobile client, mobile device, mobile user, user and client are used interchangeably Location D ependent Q ueries C ontext Aw areness Taxonomy C ontext D ependent Q ueries Hybrid Q ueries A d Hoc Q ueries M obile Q uery and Processing M obile C lient Processing Strategy O n Air Server Figure 2. Structure of Paper 56 2. Query Taxonomy In this section, we classify type of queries in mobile databases. The queries can be entirely new and specifically applied in the wireless environment, while the other can be a common type of query in traditional databases. 2. Context Awareness The word ‘context’ implies a variety of aspects. [14] defines the word context into three categories namely computing context, user context, and physical context. Computing context relates to computing resources such as network connectivity, bandwidth, printer, and workstations. User context associates with user’s needs, preferences, roles, profile, and alike. Physical co ntext involves environment issue, which include lighting, noise, traffic, temperature, and humidity. [5] adds another category of context called ‘time context’, which refers to time of a day, week, month, year, etc. 6] defines context as either the aspect of physical world or condition and activities in the virtual world. It is further described that context information can either be transient when the context associates with the environment at a point of time or persistent when the context involves a history of transient context. In simple words, we can always define that context relates to who, when, where, and what. Context awareness creates a new class of applications in mobile computing. With context awareness, mobile device is expected to adapt constantly in a wide range of dynamically and continually changing situations. It is important for the device to be able to aware of the situation, environment, and tasks that the mobile client is performing as well as will be performing in the near future. The utilisation of context information in an application minimises the amount of user involvement in a service by providing related information. Having known the context of the query enables the device to pre-fetch all data that is highly related and likely to be queried in the near future. You read "Mobile Query and Processing in Mobile Database Environment" in category "Papers" With this query, client only initiates a single request and all related data will be retrieved implicitly. This technique avoids client to have multiple request that result in energy efficiency. Example: To find restaurants information in current region. The query will result of retrieving restaurants based on user’s preferences such as Italian, Chinese or fast food as well as pre-fetching maps, traffic and weather condition, which is likely to be queried next. Most applications have been focusing on location awareness rather than context awareness as a whole. Thus, we classify mobile database queries into location dependent queries, context dependent queries, and the combination thereof. 2. 1. Location Dependent Queries Location dependent query is a class of queries that are motivated by mobile clients. In this type of query, the location of the mobile client is a parameter of the query. The value of the location parameter can be provided by the client or a global positioning system (GPS). An example of this query is a traveler’s information system that provides information on hotels, restaurant, bars and the like, to motorists. Processing of queries must be based on knowledge of the user’s location. For queries services that are ahead of the current route, direction of motion and speed are necessary to be taken into account. Recent technology provides a new feature in automobiles, which offers 57 navigational aids as a built-in feature. In general, each location updates generate two direct costs, particularly transmission cost, which refers to the cost to inform the server of the new location, and server processing cost, which corresponds to the cost of updating the system containing the location of the mobile unit. The location parameter can be in any objects, such as taxis, trucks, and helicopters. This class of query can be further classified into two categories: (i) Continuous query, and (ii) On-demand query. Continuous query The continuous type of query includes real-time monitoring of mobile objects. This is different compared with conventional queries, which are based on an instant of the database at some moment in time. Real-time monitoring queries are continuous for monitoring purposes [3, 13]. Examples: (i) To request information about nearby tourist attractions, hotels, or shopping center while traveling. With this type of query, users only need to send a query once and notification of the updated information about nearby tourist attractions, hotels, or shopping center will be sent automatically as they move to different regions. ii) This query also helps tourists whenever they are close to a certain situation such as dangerous zone or traffic jam by providing some alerts to mobile user. Figure 3 shows an illustration of real-time query monitoring. In this application, the system must be able to provide the accurate query results and update them in real time whenever some mobile cl ients enters or exits the region defined by the query. This class of query can be referred as range-monitoring queries. The range-monitoring queries are removed from the system only when the user explicitly ends the query. Server End Query Query i Response i New Region Updated response i Region 1 Mobile Client 1 Moves to Region 2 Mobile Client 1 Figure 3. Continuous Query On demand query The on demand location dependent query is different from continuous query in a way that its database management does not manage the query but only the location of each mobile units in specified regions. Figure 4 illustrates on demand query. Every mobile unit is registered under one location server that manages the user profiles and is called the home location server. Location information of mobile clients can be stored at predefined sites like the user’s home location server in a network. Consequently, the search space for a user’s location can be reduced. However, when a mobile user crosses any boundaries of a cell, the information at the predefined site has to be updated accordingly. This type of query does not have to specify when to end the query since the server does not keep the query but the location [12]. Examples: To retrieve nearby hospital, police station or petrol station in the area. 58 Server Q uery i R esponse i Q uery j R esponse j Region 1 M obile C lien t 1 M oves to Region 2 M obile C lien t 1 Figure 4. On Demand Query When the parameter is an object, and mobile client requests an object that satisfies location criteria, then the situation becomes different. Figure 5 illustrates on demand query with location object parameter [8,15]. Examples: (i) Taxi operator wants to see how many free taxis are currently in a certain region. They can find free taxis and allocate them to another region that require more taxis or send them directly to the nearby customer. (ii) Tourists who come to the country, where there are no designated bus’ stops, nor timetable. They can utilize mobile device to retrieve incoming buses within a pre-defined time. Server Object Query Object Result Location Tracking Location Info Mobile Client Object Figure 5. On Demand Query with Location Object Parameter 2. 1. 2 Context Dependent Queries This type of query requires maintenance of an internal representation of user’s needs, preferences, roles, profile, etc. With these parameters, application will be able to decide the situation and task that a user is currently performing, and adapt to change of user needs and roles. This enables mobile device not to just retrieve the required information but also some other information that is highly relevant [6,8]. Examples: (i) Tourist wants to see list of restaurants in a town. Rather than retrieving the entire list of restaurants, the query retrieves the restaurants based on user’s preferences and need such as cuisine preference, price, occasion, etc. (ii) A business person wants to check the closest meeting schedule. The query retrieves the time as well as previous history of the meeting, people involved, client accounts, meal preferences, required data, etc. 9 2. 1. 3 Hybrid Queries Hybrid queries represent a combination of location dependent and context dependent queries. This type of query requires the system to maintain all parameters of context-awareness queries including location parameter. Examples: (i) A Traveler wants to find restaurants in the region that he/she will enjoy and within 10 minutes of current travel distance, (ii) A teenager wa nts to check movies in the nearby cinemas that he/she will like, and the show time can be met while considering current travel distance. These queries are very useful for nomadic users since it not only considers the users’ preferences and needs but also the location of the user. More sophisticated application utilizes a variety of sensors to monitor the environment as well as user’s action in order to provide assistance of the tasks being performed by the user. This application requires the ability to process data streams in real-time, analyze and interpret it precisely. The main point in context awareness query is to accurately analyze the environment and user’s intention, regardless of where the context information is obtained from. It is a difficult challenge since there is a possibility of conflicting data, and the need to have efficient processing to provide a useful application to the user. 2. 2 Ad Hoc Queries Ad Hoc queries are commonly utilised queries in traditional DBMS. This type of query explicitly mentions the required information in the query statement, and does not involve any context awareness information. Thus, the query result is only based on the actual query itself. Examples: (i) University student wants to retrieve his/her academic record or personal details. ii) Travelling sales person inquires about product availability, price, etc. 3. Query Processing Strategy We divide query-processing strategy for mobile databases into three parts, namely: (i) mobile/client strategy, (ii) on-air strategy and, (iii) server strategy. Mobile/clients strategy relates to how client manipulates and maintains the data in its cache efficiently and effectively. On-air strategy corresponds to data broadcasting stra tegies. With this strategy, the number of mobile users does not affect the query performance. Server strategy relates to designing techniques for the server to accommodate multiple requests so that the request can be processed as efficiently as possible. We claim that query processing for mobile databases is very much centered around the issues of caching, broadcasting, and scheduling. Figure 6 shows the architecture of query processing in mobile databases. 60 C Strategies lient OA n ir Strategies Server Strategies Figure 6. Query Processing in Mobile databases 3. 1 Mobile Client Strategy Mobile client’s strategy defines a number of strategies to maintain cached data items in clients’ local storage. As stated earlier, wireless communication channel in general suffers to narrow bandwidth while it is also inherently asymmetric communication, in which the downstream communication bandwidth from a server to the mobile client is much larger than the upstream communication bandwidth from clients back to server. Due to the above reason, caching of frequently accessed data items in a client’s local storage becomes important for enhancing the performance and data availability of data access queries. Another advantage of caching is the ability to handle fault tolerance. This is related to the characteristics of mobile computing in which each mobile client connects or disconnects from the network frequently. In some situation, the MBS may not be accessible due to problem like signal distortion. However, a query can still be partially processed from caches and at least some of the query results can be returned to the user [9]. Three main issues characterize a caching mechanism. These issues include caching granularity, caching coherence strategy, and caching replacement policy. Caching granularity relates to determining a physical form of cached data items. Caching coherence strategy or invalidation strategy involves cache invalidation and update schemes to invalidate and update an out-dated cached item [4]. Caching replacement policy is needed to retain the frequently accessed database items in a client’s local storage. The more effective a caching replacement policy in keeping the frequently accessed items, the better a query will perform and the more queries could be served during disconnection situation. 3. On Air Strategy In this scheme, the server periodically broadcasts the frequently accessed data items to clients through one or more broadcast channels, but the clients may not cache the data item of interest. This situation might occur when the client does not have enough memory or space to cache the required data. The behavior of this channel is unidirectional which means the server disseminates a set of data periodically, via this type of c hannel to a multiple number of users. A complete broadcast file is referred as a broadcast cycle. In this scheme, the client needs to listen to channel and filter the required data over the channel, which is also generally known as push-mechanism. Figure 7 shows on air query processing. 61 The advantage of broadcasting channel is its scalability. The number of users in the cell and the request rate do not affect the performance of the server. Thus, the utilization of bandwidth is better and the server workload is lower as compared with point to point/on-demand communication. Consequently, the power utilization of the client to retrieve information is also improved. However, it is very important to have good strategies to maintain the overall response time of the client to obtain information from the channel or else the advantages of data broadcast will be diminished. B ro ad cast C h an n el = listen in g to th e chan n el = retriev in g th e d esired data M o bile C lie nt Figure 7. On Air Query Processing 3. 3 Server Strategy This strategy considers the problem of pull-based broadcast scheduling where mobile clients send queries to the server through dedicated or point-to-point channel, server process the query, and send the result back to the client. The strategy concerns with broadcast and disk scheduling. Broadcast scheduling is to determine how queries to be served efficiently in the server considering a number of factors such as the length of the query, the wait time and the popularity of the items. Data scheduling is related to how data is placed on the disk that improves the query response time. The possibility of combining these two methods for query processing strategy is an interesting issue to be explored. B road cast server C ach e S erver D isk S erver T r a n sm itte r S erver Figure 8. Broadcast Server Architecture A database server is able to enhance the data retrieval performance by incorporating its own main memory and cache to store those database items frequently accessed by most mobile clients. Figure 62 8 shows architecture of broadcast server. A query can be processed either in the disk server or cache server. If the relevant data items have been retrieved earlier then the query is processed in the cache server. After processing a query, the results are transmitted to the transmitter queue, which subsequently send the data items through the wireless channel. 4. Challenges in Mobile Databases This section discusses some challenges in mobile database environment. The general concept that has been outlined in this paper contains an enormous issue to investigate. However, due to the limitation of page, only a few numbers can be mentioned. Location management is an important issue in mobile database research. Since the number of user population carrying mobile devices increases linearly with the service demand, the communication traffic for locating users also increases accordingly. This situation requires an efficient strategy for location tracking and management. Location management is a very essential factor in providing context awareness services. Context security introduces a new issue to be considered. Since context information may contain a very confidential and private data. It is necessary to ensure privacy issue protection for every user in a network. Caching management strategy, which includes caching granularity, caching coherent issue, and caching replacement strategy, requires a thorough investigation. A good caching management strategy is able to analyse, predict, and adapt to changing of user’s context in order to assist user in performing tasks. As for processing issue, data caching in mobile databases enable clients to obtain a high computing speed as server, by involving a much smaller data items volume. The asymmetric communication in mobile environment has made it a better reason to employ caching strategy. Broadcast scheduling is another issue to investigate. Generally, the more number of data to be broadcast, the more requests will be served from the data broadcast and this will reduce the chance of mobile clients to send the request to the server. However, at a certain point the advantage of the broadcast data will be diminished if there is too many data in the roadcast cycle. Consequently, it will severely affect the query response time since mobile users have to wait for considerably long delay before they receive the desired data. Therefore, it is essential to decide what data to be broadcast that serves most of the requests since the query access pattern is changed dynamically. 5. Conclusions Recent emergence of w ireless technology enables people to conduct activities, business, or transactions anywhere and anytime without any attachment to stationary computer like used to be. Nomadic people are now able to access email, news, weather, and query to the central database server using wireless devices. Mobile database focuses on the query issue that is the dominant operation in mobile computing. Since mobile database is a new dimension of database application, the type of query, query processing strategy, and communication technology that involves in the application are different than what applies in traditional databases. We have defined query taxonomy as well as query processing strategy in mobile databases. Query in mobile databases are categorized into context-awareness query and ad-hoc query. Context- 63 awareness query is further classified into location dependent, context dependent, and hybrid query. Query processing in mobile databases includes mobile client, on air, and server strategy. Mobile client and on air strategy corresponds to caching strategy and broadcast strategy respectively. Finally, we discuss a few challenges that open enormous opportunities for research in mobile databases. 6. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ACHARYA S. , ALONSO R. , FRANKLIN M. AND ZDONIK S. Broadcast Disks: Data Management for Asymmetric Communication Environments, Proceedings of ACM Sigmod, pp. 199-210, May, 1995. BARBARA D. , Mobile Computing and Databases-A Survey, IEEE TKDE, 11(1):108-117, January/February, 1999. CAI Y. AND HUA K. A. , An Adaptive Query Management Technique for Real-Time Monitoring of Spatial Regions in Mobile Database Systems, 21st IEEE IPCCC, pp. 259-266, 2002. CHAN B. Y. , SI A. and Leong H. V. , Cache Management for Mobile Databases: Design and Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), pp. 4-63, 1998. CHEN G. AND KOTZ D. , A Survey of Context-Aware Mobile Computing Research, Technical Report TR2000381, Department of Computer Science, Dartmouth College, November, 2000. EBLING R. M. , HUNT H. D. G. AND LEI H. , Issues for Context Services for Pervasive Computing, Proceedings of Middleware’01 Advanced Workshop on Middleware for Mobile Computing, Heidelberg, November, 2001. ELMASRI R. AND NAVATHE S. B. , Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3’rd Edition, Addison W. , U. S. A. , 2000. FRANKLIN J. M. , Challenges in Ubiquitous Data Management, Informatics, pp. 4-33, 2001. GODFREY P. AND GRYZ J. , Semantic Query Caching for Heterogeneous Databases, Proceedings of the 4th Knowledge Representation meets Databases Workshop (KRDB), pp. 61-66, April, 1997. 10. IMIELINSKI T. AND VISWANATHAN S. , Adaptive Wireless Information Systems, Proceedings of SIGDBS (Special Interest Group in Database Systems) Conference, pp. 19-41, October, 1994. 11. IMIELINSKI T. , VISWANATHAN S. AND BADRINATH B. R. , Data on Air: Organisation and Access, IEEE TKDE, 19(3): 353-371, May/June, 1997. 12. KOTTKAMP H. -E. AND ZUKUNFT O. Location-Aware Query Processing in Mobile Database Systems, ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 416-423, February, 1998. 13. KUBACH U. AND ROTHERMEL K. , A Map-Based Hoarding Mechanism for Location-Dependent Information, Proceedings of Second Mobile Data Management (MDM), pp. 145-157, January, 2001. 14. SCHILIT B. , ADAMS N. AND WANT R. , Context-Aware Computing Applications, Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 85-90, December, 1994. 15. WOLFSON O. , ET AL, Databases for Tracking Mobile Units in Real Time, Proceedings of ICDT’99, pp. 169186, 1998. 64 How to cite Mobile Query and Processing in Mobile Database Environment, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

To Clone Or Not To Clone Analysis Essay Example For Students

To Clone Or Not To Clone Analysis Essay Cloning is an issue that has been evolving during time. At thebegining, cloning was been researched and was described as somethingthat was hard to reach. Even science fiction movies, such asMultiplicity, were produced about cloning. As the time went through,cloning became a reality. In 1996 Dolly, the first mammal, a sheep wasborn. Dolly was created by Ian Wilmut, an embryologist of the Roslinginsitute ( World Book, http://www.worldbook.com ). Since then, manymammals, such as mice and calves were created. Right now, there is afear, that humans might be the next to be cloned. Ruth macklin and Charles Krauthammer discuss this matter in twoessays were they state whether cloning is right or wrong. Ruth Macklin, a professor of Bioethics, wrote an essay about thisissue. Human Cloning? Dont Just Say No is the title of her article. Her essay discusses the negative response of the people to HumanCloning. As the title of the essay says: Human Cloning? Dont Just SayNo, Macklin believes that cloning deserves a chance to be developed inhumans. Macklin talks about Human Clones not being accepted as human beings. Shestates that an ethicist said once, that human cloning would be aviolation to the right to genetic identity (Perspectives ofContemporary Issues, pg. 508). Macklin doubts about the exsistence ofthis right. She explains many points about Human Cloning and aboutethics. One of the points she mentiones, is about the violation to humandignity. Theologians say that cloning would be a violation to dignityand also that cloned humans would be treated with less respect thanother human beings. Another issue she discusses is the fact that Human Clones could be usedas human farms or organ donors. Macklin gives many examples about thecases where human cloning might be accepted. Mothers that can not havechildren, families that have children that are sick to death or alsocouples that may have genetic defects (Perspectives of ContemporaryIssues, pg. 508). In conclusion, Macklin thinks, that human cloning should be accepted orat least an opportunity should been given to develop Human Cloning. On the other hand, Charles Krauthammer, the author of the secondessay Of Headless Mice..And Men is totally against Cloning in everyway. His essay talks about the cloning that was made in mice. Researchers have been able to locate different genes and than deletesome genes, just to see what comes out. They erased the clone thatcreates the head and produced headless mice that obviosly died when thewere born. Krauthammer does not understand, how humans can create such type ofmice. He talks about the chance of creating humans with no heads. Hesays, that the goal of these production of headless humans, could bekept as an organ farm. He also gives examples of Cloning, such as thepossibility to create models, and geniuses (Perspectives of ContemporaryIssues, pg. 510). Krauthammer mentiones that President Bill Clintonbanned cloning, but it wont be long until it is accepted. Krauthammercloncusion is the prohibition of Human cloning and every type ofcloning. These essays are a clear example of what cloning is and what theresponses might be. As Macklin is in favor of Cloning, Krauthammer isnot. Macklins essay talks more about cloning as having a twin, a personthat will be living with us and form part of the family. A companionthat will be there to live life as it is. There are other terms for cloning such as carbon copy. .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .postImageUrl , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:hover , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:visited , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:active { border:0!important; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:active , .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376 .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf2bbbef4532ce3927cba0b0e4e582376:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: In the summer of 1969, not everyone was at Woodsto EssayOn the other hand, Krauthammers essay describes human clones with noheads. Human farms that will be there in case something goes wrong withthe original. These half human beings would be different, they would bekept alive, like an organ reserve if the original loses a hand, thenthe clone gives that person a hand. What kind of thoughts are those? Isit possible that scientists have come to a point were they want tocreate Monsters? This would really be a violation to human dignity. Aharm to the cloned person that might not have a brain tothink, but he sure will have the same arms, legs, hands, etc as theoriginal. He might not have the same face as the original, but he willhave a heart and I am sure that he would not like to live headless. Ifcloning will be this way, than it should be completly banned. Both essays are very persuasive, but there is a difference inboth. The examples given by the authors have a huge roll in thepersuasive part, Krauthammer has examples that might be more persuasivethan Macklins. They both explain the two faces of cloning and under which conditiond itmight be developed. Macklin gives us an explanation trying to convincethe public of giving human cloning a chance to happen. She alsodescribes cloning as some kind of human farm, but mostly what sheexplains is that cloning can be taken as something normal, as an in-vitro fertilization, for example. Many people do not really know whathuman cloning really is and misunderstand its meaning. Macklin gives ashort explanation, but as every experiment, it must have somedificulties. Krauthammers essay is totally against cloning. He is very persuasiveand gives examples that will change the way of thinking of many peopleand turn them against cloning. He gives exapmles, that are almostimposibble to believe. Headless people, headless mice, keeping humanclones alive as an organ farm, etc. All these examples are a reality andanyone who is mature enough and has reasoning will be against thecreation of headless humans. This essays have the same topic, but are different. Although bothtalk about human cloning, the essays are different. As we could see, in Macklins essay, the cloned humans are consideredpersons. Krauthammers essay mostly discusses human clones as humanfarms. Macklin talks about cloning being banned, but she does not statewho banned it. Krauthammer explains this as saying that Dolly madepresident Clinton create a comission and temporary banned humanclonning. Eventhough there is a temporary ban, this could someday beaccepted. Krauthammer thinks, that this should be banned forever. There are a lot of different opinions about cloning and also a lotof mistaken thoughts about this issue. Many articles have been writtenand discussed. Many questions are to be answered and more research is tobe done. This type of essays can clear some doubts people have, but arenot enough to say I am in favor or I am against. It is anissue that will be a controversy for al long time. It might be right tocreate a human clone as a person, but it is very wrong to use a humanclone as a human farm. Everyone has the right to live a normal life. Ifthis right will be violated than, no cloned humans should be created. As Macklin says: A world not safe foe cloned humans would be a worldnot safe for the rest of us. BibliographyMacklin, Ruth Human Cloning? Dont Just Say No Perspectives onContemporary Issues. Pages 507-508Krauthammer, Charles Of Headless MiceAnd Men Perspectives onContemporary Issues. Pages 509-511Wachbroit, Robert Human Cloning Isnt as Sacry as it Sounds Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Phases of the moon Essay Essay Example

Phases of the moon Essay Essay During dark clip. the Moon is the clearest heavenly object that could be seen any topographic point on Earth. The Moon is considered as the closest heavenly thing on Earth and is the lone natural orbiter to the Earth ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . As people noticed. the Moon nowadayss altering forms in the dark sky. There are cases when 1 could see a full disc form. other times it peaks a cabal of its face and sometimes it vanishes for a few yearss. These alterations in the bright side of the Moon are identified as the moon’s stages. Such happening in the Moon is non random at all instead the alterations happen in a monthly footing and occurs in a predictable mode ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . The Moons stages are non the consequence of the earth’s shadow as many believe. The shadow of the Earth may do occultations but the happening of the Moons phases is a different instance. Phases of the Moon are dependent on its place in the alliance together with the Earth and Sun therefore the lighted portion in the moon’s face is caused by the contemplation of the visible radiation from the Sun ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Phases of the moon Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Phases of the moon Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Phases of the moon Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer During the 29 twenty-four hours travel of the Moon around its orbit. its place undergoes day-to-day alterations. There are times when the Moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun. other times it is behind the Earth this is why people see the bright parts of the moon’s surface in different angles ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . The eight stages of the Moon undergoes a rhythm which is proceeded by the new Moon. New Moon besides known as the dark Moon could be seen whenever the Sun and the Moon are likewise positioned on the same side of the Earth. The new Moon is basically non seeable because it is situated in between the Sun and the Earth therefore the portion which is lighted faces straight to the Sun while the other portion which is lost in the sun’s blaze is confronting the Earth ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . The 2nd stage of the Moon is identified as the waxing crescent. This appears during the 2nd or 3rd twenty-four hours. During this stage merely a small portion of the Moon is demoing up. It is characterized with a thin lunar splinter which is evident proceedingss after the sundown. Such stage is termed as waxing because every dark a portion of the Moon becomes more seeable in a longer clip ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . By the clip the waxing crescent Moon grows in a half full. it has so reached the 3rd stage which is known as the first one-fourth. During this stage. half of the Moon is already seeable. However. its visibleness last during the first half of the eventide and finally goes down. It is besides of import to observe that the first one-fourth Moon reflect the sun’s visible radiation on the right manus side ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Waxing Gibbous Moon is a stage when most portion of the Moon is already seeable. At this point. the Moon is clearly seeable to any of its perceivers and merely a small splinter is non illuminated. The crookback Moon could be seen clearly even before the sundown and corsets in the dark sky until three in the forenoon ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . The full face of the Moon is evident during the 5th stage which is the full Moon. This stage takes topographic point whenever the Earth is positioned between the Moon and the Earth. Full Moon is the lone stage where the Moon is reflecting all throughout the dark. A full Moon will lift during the beginning of the dark and will finally put as forenoon stairss in ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . Just like the waxing crookback. the declining crookback which is the 6th stage of the Moon. shows all but a small portion of the Moon. However. in contrast with the waxing crookback where perceivers are seeing much of the heavenly body’s illuminated portion. the declining crookback is an indicant of seeing less of the Moon in the approaching darks. This is why it was coined as â€Å"waning† crookback ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Second to the last of the moon’s stage is the last one-fourth. Much like the first one-fourth. people see a half full of the moon’s illuminated face nevertheless ; the reflected visible radiation is set on the left manus corner of the Moon reverse to the first one-fourth stage which is reflected in the right manus side ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . Finally the waning crescent marks the concluding rhythm of the moon’s stage. During this period people would observer that merely small of the Moons face is seeable. By the following darks merely a smaller portion of the Moon can be seen in a lesser period. From there a new rhythm will so continue ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Obviously the moon’s stages are dependent upon the moon’s run alonging place in conformity to the Sun and Earth. It is besides notable that the sequence of the stages starts with the moon’s light light from right to left until it extends to the full Moon stage. Right after the said stage the lighted country of the Moon would withdraw from right to left until it reaches the new Moon stage which would tag another rhythm. The stages of the Moon are non complicated as it may look. By larning how. when and why it occurs enables an single to cognize that such event is non random but a predictable event.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The 17th Amendment to the US Constitution

The 17th Amendment to the US Constitution On March 4, 1789, the first group of United States senators reported for duty in the brand new U.S. Congress. For the next 124 years, while many new senators would come and go, not a single one of them would have been elected by the American people. From 1789 to 1913, when the Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, all U.S. senators were chosen by the state legislatures. Key Takeaways: The 17th Amendment The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution provides for the election of senators by voters in the states they are to represent, rather than by the state legislatures and establishes the method for filling vacancies in the Senate.The 17th Amendment was proposed in 1912 and ratified on April 8, 1913. Senators were first elected by the people in Maryland in 1913, and nationwide in the general election of November 3,1914. The 17th Amendment provides that senators should be directly elected by voters in the states they are to represent, rather than by the state legislatures. It also provides a method for filling vacancies in the Senate. The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and adopted in 1913 after being ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the then 48 states. Senators were first elected by voters in special elections in Maryland in 1913 and Alabama in 1914, then nationwide in the general election of 1914. With the right of the people to choose some of the most powerful officials of the U.S. federal government seemingly such an integral part of American democracy, why did it take so for that right to be granted? Background The framers of the Constitution, convinced that senators should not be popularly elected, crafted Article I, section 3 of the Constitution to state, â€Å"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.† The framers felt that allowing the state legislatures to choose senators would secure their loyalty to the federal government, thus increasing the Constitution’s chances of ratification. In addition, the framers felt that senators chosen by their state legislatures would be better able to concentrate on the legislative process without having to deal with public pressure. While the first measure to amend the Constitution to provide for the election of senators by popular vote was introduced in the House of Representatives in 1826, the idea failed to gain traction until the late 1850s when several state legislatures began to deadlock over the election of senators resulting in lengthy un-filled vacancies in the Senate. As Congress struggled to pass legislation dealing with momentous issues like slavery, states’ rights, and threats of state secession , the Senate vacancies became a critical issue. However, the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, along with the long post-war period of reconstruction, would further delay action on the popular election of senators. During reconstruction, the difficulties of passing legislation needed to reunite the still-ideologically divided nation were further complicated by Senate vacancies. A law passed by Congress in 1866 regulating how and when senators were chosen in each state helped, but deadlocks and delays in several state legislatures continued. In one extreme example, Delaware failed to send a senator to Congress for four years from 1899 to 1903. Constitutional amendments to elect senators by popular vote were introduced in House of Representatives during every session from 1893 to 1902. The Senate, however, fearing the change would diminish its political influence, rejected them all. Widespread public support for change came in 1892 when the newly-formed Populist Party made the direct election of senators a key part of its platform. With that, some states took the matter into their own hands. In 1907, Oregon became the first state to select its senators by direct election. Nebraska soon followed suit, and by 1911, more than 25 states were selecting their senators through direct popular elections. The States Force Congress to Act When the Senate continued to resist the growing public demand for the direct election of senators, several states invoked a rarely-used constitutional strategy. Under Article V of the Constitution, Congress is required to call a constitutional convention for the purpose of amending the Constitution whenever two-thirds of the states demand it to do so. As the number of states applying to invoke Article V neared the two-thirds mark, Congress decided to act. Debate and Ratification In 1911, one of the senators who had been popularly elected, Senator Joseph Bristow from Kansas, offered a resolution proposing the 17th Amendment. Despite significant opposition, the Senate narrowly approved Senator Bristow’s resolution, largely on the votes of senators who recently had been popularly elected. After long, often heated debate, the House finally passed the amendment and sent it to the states for ratification in the spring of 1912. On May 22, 1912, Massachusetts became the first state to ratify the 17th Amendment. Connecticuts approval on April 8, 1913, gave the 17th Amendment the required three-fourths majority. With 36 of 48 states having ratified the 17th Amendment, it was certified by Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan on May 31, 1913, as part of the Constitution. In total, 41 states eventually ratified the 17th Amendment. The state of Utah rejected the amendment, while the states of Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia took no action on it. Effect of the 17th Amendment: Section 1 Section 1 of the 17th Amendment restates and amends the first paragraph of Article I, section 3 of the Constitution to provide for the direct popular election of U.S. senators by replacing the phrase â€Å"chosen by the Legislature thereof† with â€Å"elected by the people thereof.† Effect of the 17th Amendment: Section 2 Section 2 altered the way in which vacant Senate seats are to be filled. Under Article I, section 3, the seats of senators who left office before the end of their terms were to be replaced by the state legislatures. The 17th Amendment gives the state legislatures the right to allow the state’s governor to appoint a temporary replacement to serve until a special public election can be held. In practice, when a Senate seat becomes vacant near the national general election, the governors typically choose not to call a special election. Effect of the 17th Amendment: Section 3 Section 3 of the 17th Amendment simply clarified that the amendment did not apply to Senators chosen before it became a valid part of the Constitution. Text of the 17th Amendment Section 1.The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. Section 2.When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of each State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. Section 3.This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Influence of Age on the Perception of Decriminalizing Marijuana Research Paper

The Influence of Age on the Perception of Decriminalizing Marijuana - Research Paper Example Cannabis refers to products which may be obtained from the hemp plant, which is scientifically known as cannabis. Marijuana is obtained from cannabis(Jenkins, 2006). Pacula, et al. (2005) defined the term decriminalization almost literally as the â€Å"removal in the criminal status of cannabis possession offenses† (P. 348). However, Pacula, et al. (2005) observed that decriminalization remained undefined in the field of international policy. It is also worth mentioning at this point that a number of countries and sub-jurisdictions who were publicized to have decriminalized marijuana actually just reduced the penalties for offenses pertaining to possession of marijuana or cannabis for amounts specified by law (Pacula, 2005). The following studies were reviewed either for their direct or indirect bearing on the topic of this study: McCoun et al. (2009) suggested that the effect of the law on decriminalization of marijuana varies among age groups. In adult populations, the law h as a significant effect on marijuana use. Inversely, youth populations appear to be unfazed by regulations and sanctions (as cited in McCoun, et al. 2009). McCoun, et al. (2009) also argued that the impact of legal sanctions differs significantly depending on the age group being studied. Results of their analysis of Australian cannabis consumption show that the youth have a lower tendency to be swayed by legal sanctions. In contrast, adult subjects are largely influenced by government policies.   The authors expressed concern about immediately concluding that the youth are less sensitive to marijuana-related arrests because young people are more impulsive and prone to risky behavior. The McCoun, et al. (2009) study has the most bearing on the current study in the sense that the study tackled decriminalization of marijuana and that the effect of age was studies as a predictor variable. However, the McCoun (2009) work is different from the present study since the effect of age on pr ohibition was studied, instead of the effect of age on perceptions about decriminalizing marijuana as proposed in this study.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reyda and Farley (2006) supports the popular notion about young people and marijuana use. The authors cited evidence revealed in their study that vulnerability of adolescents to be influenced to use marijuana is lessened as they grow older. In addition, it is shown that adolescents are prone to miscalculating risks and developing biases in terms of decision making and judgment than when they grow older. Reyda and Farley’s work has indirect bearing on the study, but nonetheless, their findings bolster this researcher’s position that college students as young people would be supportive of decriminalizing marijuana since marijuana use is tagged to younger people.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Meanwhile, Fetherston and Lenton (2005) investigated public perception on the legalization of cannabis by conducting randomized ph one surveys on 809 residents of Western Australia. The respondents were asked regarding their views on cannabis legalization, attitudes towards a proposed legislative model, and their opinion of its perceived effects. Initial participant responses show that majority of respondents share a negative view regarding cannabis. However, most participants consider criminal sanctions against cannabis use as inappropriate and ineffective.